Personal Web Page
- Smart Sensors-Intelligent Instruments: IoT, Lab-on-Chip, and Machine Learning
- System Modelling: Battery, Bioimpedance, Covid 19 Pandemic
- Fractional Order System: Analysis and Synthesis
- Control Theory (Fractional, AI, Fuzzy) and Applications: Power Converter
- Analog Circuits: Design, Fabrication and Nonideality Analysis
FoCAS Lab (Research Lab)
- Agniv Tapadar, PhD Student,
- Dibakar Roy, MTech-PhD Student,
- Aakashdeep Kurre, MTech Student,
- Harshit Bansal, BTech (Hons) 2021,
- Srishti Sachan, BTech (Hons), 2020
- Kreshnan Dwivedi, MTech Student, 2021
Research Topic: Fractional Order Circuit Design.
Research Topic: Fractional order model analysis for biological samples
Research Topic: Study of Power Converters in Fractional Order Domain
Thesis: Optimal Design of a Fractional Order Immittance in the Third Quadrant
Thesis: Fractional Order Colpitts and Hartlay Oscillator
Thesis: Design and Realizetion of OTA based Fractional Order Filters
- PhD: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India
- MTech: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India
- BE (Electrical): Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India
Courses Designed and Taught
- EE103: (previuosly EE102) Circuits and Systems (UG)
- EE202: Control System Engineering-I (UG)
- EE353: Circuits and Devices Lab (UG EE Lab)
- EE504: Design of Analog and Mixed Signal Circuits (UG-PG)
- EE507: Sensors, Measurements, and Instrumentation (UG-PG)
- EE512: Advanced and Digital Control System (UG-PG)
- Faculty In-charge: Electrical Engineering Lab (since Jan 2021)
- Member: Central Instrumentation Facilities (since May 2021)
- Member: DUGC, Dept. EECS (since Aug 2020)
- Member: Purchase Committe, Dept. EECS (since Jan 2021)
- Faculty In-charge: IIT Bhilai Website (Jan 2019-Jun 2020)
- Faculty In-charge: IIT Bhilai Website (Jan 2019-Jun 2020)
- Faculty In-charge: Newsletters, and Annual reports (Jan 2019-Jun 2020)
- Since Sept, 2018: Assistant Professor at Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bhilai, Raipur, India.
- July, 2018-Aug, 2018: Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Fractional Order Filter Design, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India.
- Oct, 2007-July, 2010: Assistant System Engineer, TATA Consultancy Services, Delta Park, Sector V, Kolkata, India.
Awards and Accolades
- Nominated by the Academic Council, SSTC, Bhilai, as the Member in Board of Studies, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, of SSTC, Bhilai, 2021.
- Received the 'Certificated of Apprciation' in the final round of IEEE IS & M - Student Contest held in IEEE I2MTC May 12-15 2018, Houston, TX, USA.
- Received the 'Best Researcher Award' for 2017, in the specialization of 'Instrumentation and Signal Processing', Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, India.
- Received the 'Best Paper Award' in the track 'MEMS, Electron Device and Sensor' in IEEE TechSym 2016, Kharagpur, India.
- Achieved All India GATE Rank 22 in the GATE-2010 (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) in Electrical Engineering.
- Invited to present a lecture on topic, 'Application of Four-Quadrant Fractors' in the 'FOS' 20', an workshop on fractional order system, held at IIT Kharagpur, Feb 18-22 2020
- Invited to present a lecture on topic, 'Fractional Order Control in Power Electronics' in a seminar on Power Electronics nand Modern Drives, held at NIT Raipur, Nov 2019
- Invited to present a lecture on topic, 'Design and Realizatiion of the Four-Quadrant Fractors' in the 'FOSTA 19', an workshop on fractional order system, held at NIT Silchar, Aug 15-20 2019
- Invited to present a lecture on topic, 'Design and Realizatiion of the Four-Quadrant Fractors' in the 'FOS' 18', an workshop on fractional order system, held at IIT Kharagpur, Feb 16-20 2018
- A. Adhikary, S. Banerjee, S. Sen and K. Biswas. Two Electrode Impedeometry Based System for Measuring Conductivity of liquid Medium, Application No. 201731041880, Published, May 2019
- A. Tapadar, F A Khandey, S Sen, and A. Adhikary. Fractional Calculus in Electronic Circuits: A Review, in Fractional Order Systems: Mathematics, Design, and Applications for Engineers, Part 1, Elsevier, 2021.
- A. Adhikary. CNT based Fractors in All Four Quadrants: Design, Simulation and Practical Applications, in Fractional Order Systems: Mathematics, Design, and Applications for Engineers, Part 2, Elsevier, 2021.
- A. Adhikary and, K. Biswas. Four Quadrant Fractors and their Applications in Fractional Order Circuits, in Handbook on Fractional Calculus and Application, Vol. 5, De Gruyter, Jan, 2019.
Abstract: This paper presents a design technique to realize fractional order (FO) immittance in the second quadrant of the impedance plane, using Bruton’s generalized immittance converter (GIC). Design guidelines are developed based on a sub-optimal analysis of phase error resulted by non-ideal op amps. The analysis takes into account finite open-loop dc gain and finite unity-gain frequency of practical op amps and aim to maximize the constant phase zone for a given phase band specification. The fractance of the realized fractor can also be tuned to a desired value by varying one of the GIC resistances. Several simulations and experimental validations are demonstrated. Also, high Q, FO bandpass filter with wide tuning range is presented as an application of the designed obtuse angle fractor.
Abstract: This paper presents fabrication and characterization of fractors or fractional order (FO) elements with wide constant phase zones (100 mHz – 100 kHz). They are realized with carbon nanotube (CNT) and polyimide composite coated electrodes and ionic gels. A thorough study has been carried out on variations of their electrical parameters with respect to device composition, time and temperature. A hermetically sealed packaging scheme has been developed which has made the fractors readily integrable with PCB as well as helped to achieve an average shelf-life of two years. The phase characteristics of CNT fractors are less ripply and less noisy than their equivalent ladder fractors. A FO resonator and an arbitrary attenuation high pass filter have been designed with the fabricated fractor to demonstrate its applicability in practical analogue circuits.
Abstract: This paper presents Foster I and Foster II realizations of fractors using RC ladders while meeting five different specifications together, i.e., exponent, coefficients, upper and lower limits of constant phase zone, and phase band. The work mainly focusses on achieving the specified phase band to circumvent the present limitation of state-of-the-art. A comparison among the proposed algorithm and existing algorithms of fractor realization highlights the benefits of the proposed one. Furthermore, effects of tolerance limits of resistances (R) and capacitances (C) on the values of the fractor parameters are studied via Monte Carlo simulation using PSpice. Based on that, it develops suitable algorithm to choose R and C elements in practice. A set of experimental results are presented at the end to substantiate the presented guidelines and simulation results.
Abstract: This paper presents a two-electrode type conductivity sensor, using copper as electrodes, coated with a polyimide layer called DQN-60. This sensor is specially designed to be robust yet inexpensive for applications like precision farming and fishery. A new conductivity sensing principle is proposed which is based on impedimetric measurement (both magnitude and phase) at a frequency of 200 kHz. This sensing principle is developed by analyzing the electrical equivalent model of the proposed sensor and is aimed at eliminating the effect of the interface impedance and the cell capacitance thus making the measurement linear and accurate. A prototype meter is developed with 3.75% maximum full-scale error in the range of 0.5 microS/cm to 20 mS/cm. The temperature compensation, calibration, and detailed experimental results are also discussed.
Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of the optimal design of a grounded fractional order inductor using a generalized impedance converter. The nonidealities of the op amps have been taken into account while formulating the approximate frequency characteristics of the fractional order inductor for both Type-I and Type-II realizations. Based on these formulations a set of design guidelines is proposed to achieve minimum phase and magnitude errors for the realized fractional inductor. The minimization conditions have been validated by several simulation and experimental results.
Abstract: This paper presents the design and realization of a tunable fractional-order series resonator. It is made of an acute-angled capacitive fractor and an obtuse-angled inductive fractor and has theoretically infinite quality factor. This work establishes a relation between resonating frequency and fractor's coefficients, and that makes the tuning of such resonator feasible in practice. Similar work, by same authors, already exists for fractional-order parallel resonator. The present work along with the said parallel resonator completes the study on tunable fractional-order resonator. The fractional-order series resonator, proposed here, is realized in hardware, tuned at various frequencies, and shows very high quality fractor (about 350). The paper also goes through detailed sensitivity analysis of the proposed resonator as well as discusses the practical aspects of proposed tuning in detail.
Abstract: This paper introduces a tunable fractional order parallel resonator (FOPR) whose resonating frequency can be tuned by the coefficient of a fractional order (FO) element (fractor). At the same time, its Q-factor can be set very high (theoretically infinite) by varying its resistor. Using this FOPR circuit, two simple FO filters (FO bandpass and FO notch) are also developed. The paper includes detail sensitivity analyses of these circuits for various circuit parameters and describes how different design parameters of proposed FOPR and FO filters are chosen accordingly. Proposed FOPR and FO filters are simulated in MATLAB and realized in hardware. The hardware circuits are tested practically, and detail experimental results are provided. It is found that the experimental data are in good agreement with the simulation data. In hardware, the realized FOPR has achieved a Q-factor up to 360, and the realized FO notch filter.
Abstract: A fractor is a simple fractional-order system. Its transfer function is 1/Fs^α; the coefficient, F, is called the fractance, and α is called the exponent of the fractor. This paper presents how a fractor can be realized, using RC ladder circuit, meeting the predefined specifications on both F and α. Besides, commonly reported fractors have between 0 and 1. So, their constant phase angles (CPA) are always restricted between 0 and -90 degree. This work has employed GIC topology to realize fractors from any of the four quadrants, which means fractors with between 2 and +2. Hence, one can achieve any desired CPA between -180 degree and +180 degree. The paper also exhibits how these GIC parameters can be used to tune the fractance of emulated fractors in real time, thus realizing dynamic fractors. In this work, a number of fractors are developed as per proposed technique and their impedance characteristics are studied.
- A. Adhikary, M. Khanra, J. Pal and, K. Biswas. Realization of fractional order elements, INAE Letters, vol. 2 (2), pp. 41-47 (2017). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41403-017-0020-1
- A. Adhikary and D. Roy. Fractional Order Parameter Estimation from the Nyquist Plots with Two Distinct Lobes, 2020 IEEE First International Conference on Power, Control and Computing Technologies (ICPC2T), Raipur, India, pp. 250-255 (2020). doi: 10.1109/ICPC2T48082.2020.9071455
- A. Adhikary, J. Roy and, K. Biswas. Performance study of a two-electrode type aqueous conductivity sensor for smart farming, 2019 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 1-6 (2019). doi: 10.1109/I2MTC.2019.8826887
- A. Adhikary, S. Sen and, K. Biswas. Realization and study of a fractional order resonator using an obtuse angle fractor, 2016 IEEE Students' Technology Symposium (TechSym), Kharagpur, India, pp. 120-125 (2016). doi: 10.1109/TechSym.2016.7872667
- A. Adhikary, G Kumar, S Banerjee, S. Sen and, K. Biswas. Modelling and performance improvement of phase-angle-based conductivity sensor, 2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI), Kolkata, India, pp. 403-407 (2016). doi: 10.1109/CMI.2016.7413779
- A. Adhikary, M. Khanra, S. Sen and, K. Biswas. Realization of a carbon nanotube based electrochemical fractor, 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 2329-2332 (2015). doi: 10.1109/ISCAS.2015.7169150
- A. Adhikary, M. Khanra and, K. Biswas. Design of FPGA based digital controller for 2nd and higher order systems, 2012 Students Conference on Engineering and Systems (SCES), Allahabad, India, pp. 1-5 (2012). doi: 10.1109/SCES.2012.6199059